Household Technology and Female Labor Participation: Evidence from the U.S.

E. Cardia

This paper uses 1940 and 1950 U.S. county Census data and IPUMS microdata to assess the impact of the rapid adoption of new household technologies such as the electric stove and refrigerators, on women’s labor participation rates. I show that: modern refrigerators significantly affected participation rates and that the results are stronger for women without children or older children, while did not affect single women. (JEL O11, J22).